Saturday, June 27, 2020

Conflict in the Empire Book Review Writing Assignment - 550 Words

Conflict in the Empire Book Review Writing Assignment (Book Review Sample) Content: Conflict in the EmpireNameInstructorCourseDateConflict in the EmpireThe American Revolution was a colonial war which took place within the period, 13th April 1765 to 3rd September 1783 between the Great Britain and the American patriots in the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic Ocean. The war ended with a win by the thirteen colonies and a treaty signed in Paris.American Revolution became unavoidable because of various reasons major one being the poor quality of leadership from Grenville who was the acting prime minister. Grenville impacted law forcefully which favored the Britons and targeted the citizens from the thirteen colonies. The acts imposed on the non-Britons was received with a lot negativity by mostly the Americans (Oakes, James, et al 2014). The acts included stamp act which required anything that was printed or formally written was supposed to be on a special stamped paper for which tax must be paid. The intention of the prime minister was to show that they had control and power over their colonies. Some other acts included: sugar act which required that duties were to be charged on all the sugar imported by the colonies.Continuous disagreements in the mode of governing also contributed to the revolution as there was direct conflict between the parliament and colonies. The colonists were left on their own without restrictions hence met the property requirement which required them to vote, on contrary non-Britons were sidelined lived poor lives and did not participate in voting leading to a majority of Britons in parliament, developing hatred by the no- Britons to the parliament and t...

Sunday, May 31, 2020

Twentieth Century European Politicization in Context in Under a Cruel Star - Literature Essay Samples

Under a Cruel Star illustrates the sudden oppression of war, and what it is like to be a direct victim of an entire country. Heda Margolius Kovaly documents her experiences during the Holocaust. Focusing predominantly on how she survived one nightmare, just to walk into another: â€Å"You liberate yourself from direct oppression and you sink into something even worse† (Kovaly 29). She demonstrates how overwhelming the wave of hate and suspicion was that crashed over Europe during the twentieth century. Kovaly was living in Prague when she was taken by the Nazis and brought to a concentration camp. She was taken with her parents and nephew, who either died in Lodz or Auschwitz. When her encampment was being marched to another, she knew it was her only chance to escape. The concentration camps were heavily guarded: â€Å"the whole camp is encircled by a second ring called the â€Å"big† or â€Å"outer ring of sentry posts,† also with watchtowers every 150 meters† (Smith 363). Hopelessness was the only possible feeling to exist in these sorts of places. They were militarized death camps that politicized life on a severe level. The politicization of Europe gradually increased after World War One. Specifically, in Germany, because of the burden of blame placed on them for the war. This phase of weakness allowed for more military groups to establish a platform and rise to power. The general population was confused by the war’s outcome and unsettled by the lack of control their government possessed. They began to seek out someone who could take control and return them to a place of power once again. This was a recurring theme throughout European history, especially after the World Wars. People wanted someone to tell them how to survive, and to return to a normal life again. Adolf Hitler was the first to attempt a redemption of authority and respect for Germany. However, he took it to the extreme and utilized hate and fear to gain control over the country. After his reign, people continued to seek out someone with strong command experience. Another reason â€Å"many of our people turned to Communism†¦ [was] out of sheer despair over human nature which showed itself at its very worst after the war† (Kovaly 53). Anti-Semitism was still rampant throughout the country, and even continued to fester during Stalin’s reign as well. However, this time they also wanted someone who promised equality, and fair treatment. Even though that may sound like a utopia, and the polar opposite of Hitler, it was not. Josef Stalin brought totalitarianism with those promises and delivered further torment. However, â€Å"It is not hard for a totalitarian regime to keep people ignorant† (Kovaly 11), because of its all-encompassing dictatorship and censorship. Hitler had openly preyed upon the Jews, the Roma, the Poles, the disabled, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and homosexuals. Basically, those who he considered to be different and not as superior as him. He was on a quest to purify the German race and make it Aryan, the master race. Stalin, on the other hand, conducted secret purges and arrests: â€Å"By 1951, the atmosphere in Prague was almost as bad as it had been during the war† (Kovaly 101). He waged war on his own people, based on primarily uninformed suspicions that made him question the moves of everyone in his Party. Both Hitler and Stalin built the foundations to their Party’s on lies. Hitler emphasized strength and power, in theory a return to being great. However, â€Å"Racial and political prejudice blinded the Nazis to many opportunities† (Paxton 370) and illustrated their ignorance of the world. They did not seem to want a genuine political platform, they really just wanted to commit mass murder and be able to get away with it. Stalin emphasized the power of the working class and what working together can accomplish. Ironically, Stalin had a â€Å"destabilizing effect on the system he controlled† (Paxton 459) because he wanted to control every aspect of the Party. They began by inundating the populace with propaganda, to lay the foundation for their political platforms. Stalin utilized totalitarian propaganda, which featured indirect threats that made people nervous to act out because they could be surveilled and punished for their actions (Arendt). Then, when they are given positions of power, they change their intentions. Their true ideologies appear, and someone is always on the receiving end of their hate. Kovaly’s memoir authentically depicts what it was like to suffer through two oppressive and violent tyrants. The twentieth century in Europe was a pivotal period of war and unrest, with no one truly knowing what to do next. It was a time for political experimentation, and for the idea of power to corrupt the masses. There was a buildup of tensions throughout the decades leading up to World War One and World War Two that made all of the hate explode at each other all at once. Bibliography Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1973. Kovaly, Heda Margolius. Under a Cruel Star. Holmes Meier, 1997. Paxton, Robert O. and Julie Hessler. Europe in the Twentieth Century. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Smith, Bonnie G.. â€Å"Europe in the Contemporary World: 1900 to the Present.† Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Existence Of Gender Discrimination - 2843 Words

The existence of gender discrimination in workplaces is not under dispute (Acker, 2006). In virtually all societies across the world, women are known to be in a lower position in labour market than men. Women are overrepresented in positions at the bottom echelons of organisations; they have less status, prestige, power and authority on the job. Besides, women are segregated into roles and jobs that offer poorer rewards and have fewer opportunities for progression to positions of power (Walby, 1988). Women receive less pay and rewards than men, even if they work in similar jobs with similar levels of responsibility and requiring a similar level of ability (Cockburn, 1992). Although it has been argued that the poorer labour market position†¦show more content†¦Neo-classical economists explain discrimination in labour market in two ways: through the notions of the ‘taste’ for discrimination and through statistical discrimination (Sawyer, 1989They argue that emplo yers exhibit prejudices against certain groups based on their personal belief system. In the case of women, it is suggested that employers discriminate based on the belief that women are not as capable as men in certain roles. An excellent example of this is provided in a litigation case that was brought against the financial services and auditing company Pricewaterhouse Coopers (Case, 2014). Ann Hopkins took her employer to court when she was passed over for promotion in favour of a male colleague in spite of the fact that objective records showed that her performance on the job was far superior to that man’s. The court found that Pricewaterhouse Coopers had discriminated against Hopkins simply because she was a woman, and they did not believe that she would be capable in the new role. Neo classical economists, however, state that this form of discrimination is logical for employers (Sawyer, 1989). This is due to the presence of uncertainty and asymmetric information, as well as the fact that employers are rational in their decision-making. Although information is available in CVs, application forms, and other selection mechanisms, employers are still unable to be certain that any new employees will fully meet the criteria for

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Sociological Ideas of Globalization The Rana Plaza

Sociological Ideas of Globalisation: The Rana Plaza Garment Factory Disaster in Dhaka, Bangladesh On the 24th of April 2013, a tragedy occurred in Dhaka, Bangladesh, resulting in the deaths of more than 1000 people and the destruction of a nine-story garment factory â€Å"Rana Plaza† (Manik Yardley, n.d.,). However, the unsatisfactory condition of the building was known to employees. The day before the tragedy, several cracks were noticed, yet the owner of the factory ignored the warning by police to suspend the factory. In addition, workers were physically intimidated which shows, illustrating the power of society and the desperation of financial condition as individuals (Hossain, 2013). 80% of the workers at the Rana Plaza were female; this was because their labor was the cheapest in the world, with the minimum income BDT being 3000 taka per month (the equivalent of 37 Australian dollars) (Burke, 2013). This industry represented the international fashion labels in Europe, America, cosmopolitanism and progressive brands such as Benetton etc. Most of the factory†™s textile products were internationally exported, earning foreign currency and allowing it to become the largest industry in Bangladesh. The â€Å"Rana Plaza† was one of the main industry, which maintained the economy and society as individuals in Bangladesh. The power of capital at the Bangladesh level is the arrangement of dominance transnational businesses at the global level, which is a smaller rate of powerfulShow MoreRelatedThe Rana Plaza Building Collapse1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe collapsing of the Rana Plaza building in the Dhaka suburb of Savar, is a tragic incident that occurred on April 24, 2013 (Prashad 2013). The Rana Plaza building was the establishment that had workers who were the commodity of the production of garments that are sold to the Western market. A couple days post-collapse, it was reported that the death toll was well into the triple-digits. This paper will draw on the details of pre- and post- Rana Plazas collapsing while connecting it to Marx and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Globalism And The Growth Of Income Disparity - 889 Words

Globalism and the Growth of Income Disparity Globalism and the Growth of Income Disparity Globalism refers to connectedness and communication networks that span continents and bring the world s people closer together, and globalization refers to how globalism increases or decreases. Digital technology has increased globalism, global marketing and business opportunities, but this growth doesn t mean that everyone gets a share of the wealth. There has been a growing gap between the richest and poorest people that only seems to increase as globalism generates more opportunities. The top fifth of U.S. households, for example, own 84 percent of the nation s wealth while the bottom two-fifths only own 0.3 percent of the country s wealth according to the a href= A study found that incomes for the richest 1 percent tripled between 1979 and 2007 while median income households only earned 25 percent more in the same period, and most of that increase was due to labor force incr eases and people working longer hours. Income Disparity Between Poor and Rich Has Grown Steadily Under Globalization People persist with many misconceptions and seem to prefer rags-to-riches success stories over the hard facts that the disparity between the haves and have-nots continues to increase. These misconceptions include: Globalism makes things fairer for everybody. People live similarlyShow MoreRelatedGlobalization: The Road to Worldwide Peace and Prosperity Essay688 Words   |  3 Pagespeace a chance Lyrics from the song, Give Peace A Chance by John Lennon Is globalism just another ism to be feared and loathed? Despite some obvious negative effects of globalism, or globalization, we need to recognize the potential of globalization to help achieve worldwide peace and prosperity. Many people have written papers demonstrating globalizations contribution to structural violence and income inequality. However, these problems stem from the current manifestation of globalizationRead MoreRace, Poverty Globalization Essay1813 Words   |  8 Pagesrelated to globalism, and why are people of color under the most severe threat from this process? Certainly, other people are also under a threat from this globalization process, and some would assert that democracy and capitalism itself may be undone by this process if it is not checked. To answer the above question and to understand why minorities and other marginal populations are most at risk, it is first necessary to better understand what globalism is, particularly the type of globalism that d ominatesRead MoreGlobalization Essay1401 Words   |  6 Pagesset definition for globalization, there is also no clear answer to whether or not globalization is good or bad. There are examples of how globalization has helped a country greatly, but there are also examples of globalization causing harm to the growth and prosperity of the nation. Introduction: The Positions of Globalization Globalization has several different perspectives. One may think that through globalization it will improve communication reducing problems such as poverty and unemploymentRead More The Successes and Failures of the Zapatista Movement Essay1863 Words   |  8 Pagesliberalization, privatization, and deregulation is the surest recipe for triggering higher levels of growth, efficiency, and productivity.? Nevertheless, in the past ten years, NAFTA has increased income disparity by region and on an aggregate level. According to Jorge G. Castaà ±eda, The contrast between the northern developed cities and the less developed south has become even more evident?The per capita income gap between the Federal District (which includes Mexico City) and states like. . . OaxacaRead MoreInternational Management Study3118 Words   |  13 Pagesperspectives. -Top two exogenous risks facing business leaders and policy makers for 2012 and the next decade would be severe income disparity (The unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in the economy) and chronic fiscal imbalances (situation where all of the future debt obligations of a government are different from the future income streams) -Other issues: natural disasters such as 2011 earthquake in Japan, flood in Thailand, Political uncertainty inRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pageswhere human communities globally and individuals locally had the potential to be much more intensely connected by new communications technologies, state-sponsored programs to achieve autarky, a global epidemic of ethnic strife, uncontrolled urban growth, and the dissolution of extended family ties in many societies divided nations and communities and isolated individuals to an extent unparalleled in recorded human history. For teachers, in particular, the challenge of weaving together in meaningful

Religion and Politics - 1957 Words

A popular bumper sticker plastered on an untold multitude of American SUVs declares that â€Å"God isn’t a Republican†¦ Or a Democrat†. Now, if an entire system of thought can be fit onto the back of someone’s car and is readable from five feet away then the issue may require some rethinking—or is at least oversimplified. However, that sticker echoes some of the most fundamental dilemmas facing believers and political enthusiasts alike in the modern world. Where does Christianity fit in terms of one’s choice in elected officials? What about the Gospel of Jesus Christ in relation to one’s social circle, one’s choices in reading material, or one’s favorite bands? The tangled enigma of religion and society is pressingly relevant in this present†¦show more content†¦Faith is at risk when the action associated with a belief system is motivated not by a conscious, dynamic morality but by a desire for social acceptance. S tephen encounters similar cultural policing when, while still in grade school, his English teacher announces to the entire class that â€Å"this fellow has heresy in his essay† (Joyce 69). The dramatic public criticism of a syntactic trifle that does not exactly align with Catholic doctrine serves as a humiliating reinforcement of religiously derived social standards and punishes Stephen for both original thought and individuality. The rigid religion that saturates Stephen’s surroundings conditions him to worship, to believe, and to belong without question or concern. The onset of Stephen’s adolescence is marked by renewed and heightened zeal for his religion as the gifted young man struggles to assert his own identity and to satisfy the yearnings of his artistic nature for spiritual and intellectual fulfillment. After receiving forgiveness for past transgressions (through a traditional Catholic confession), Stephen thought that â€Å"it would be beautiful to d ie if God so willed. It was beautiful to live if God so willed, to live in grace a life of peace and virtue and forbearance with others† (Joyce 127); he developed a strict regimen wherein â€Å"every morning he hallowed himself anew in the presenceShow MoreRelatedReligion, Politics, And Politics Essay2149 Words   |  9 Pages Religion and politics have been inextricably intertwined since the creation of culture and civilization. However, the academic tradition often times has been to focus on the importance of placing religion and politics into two distinctly separate systems. I, however, argue that it isn t as black and white as that. In many of the readings we have been assigned this quarter thus far, religion and politics have gone hand in hand mutually benefiting one another. As shown in these readings, religionRead MoreReligion And Politics And Religion926 Words   |  4 PagesReligion and politics are two topics that should never be discussed. The reasoning behind t his statement is because both are very controversial, especially religion. The term religion in itself does not have a proper definition because it varies based on what an individuals’ response the question of: what is religion? Throughout history, religions and belief systems have been associated with wars, persecution, diasporas, etc., which ultimately infers that religion is at the core of violence, hatredRead MoreRegime, Religion and Politics670 Words   |  3 PagesRegime, Religion and Politics For many years, religion has been peripheral to the concerns of political philosophers, but it actually means the connection between human beings and God or gods, or whatever they consider sacred. On the other hand, there is another crucial factor called â€Å"Democracy†, which is by far the most challenging form of the state - both for politicians and for individuals. The term â€Å"democracy† comes from Greek language and it means â€Å" rule by the people†. In this essay, IRead MoreReligion, Culture, And Politics942 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican life, culture and politics. Similarly, the fact that many people adhere to other faiths affects American life, culture, and politics as well. In general, religion plays a positive role within society, so long as it does not prohibit others from living how they want to live. As a child, being raised Catholic of course meant attending Church on Sunday, but it also meant many other things as well. Being raised Catholic meant learning as much as possible about my religion, going to confessionRead MoreThe Between Politics And Religion1423 Words   |  6 Pages1. Islam, as we saw early in this course, began with a fusion of religion and politics. How do the various approaches to Islam we ve studied—traditionalism as represented by the ‘ulama, Sufism, Islamism, and modernism—differ in conceiving of the relationship between the two? Does each necessarily have a vision of an Islamic engagement with politics and, if so, what does it look like? The interaction between politics and religion in the Islamic context is one that descends from the model of theRead MoreThe Tangling Of Religion And Politics1399 Words   |  6 PagesThe Tangling of Religion and Politics Religion and politics are quite mingled into society both in the developed countries as well as in developing countries. Religion and politics are two divisions of a single person. Religion speaks for a person’s moral values and beliefs and politics reaches out to one’s secular lifestyle. People involved in society may have deep rooted religious beliefs that control their behaviors and thought process and most times impact their political stance and ideologyRead MoreReligion Within Politics1358 Words   |  6 Pages Incorporation of Religion in Politics Arman Gevorgyan California State University, Sacramento Hobbes and Locke had different, yet slightly similar, views on the relationship of religion within politics. While Locke’s essay portrayed himself to have more of a religious foundation in his doctrine, Hobbes did not speak of religion too often, and whenever religion was spoken, it was not very in the Leviathan. Hobbes used the forms of senses and imagination to discredit or to divert of supernaturalRead MoreReligion and Politics Essay2773 Words   |  12 PagesReligion and Politics Historically, religion and politics have always played a very significant part in our everyday lives, dating back to the ancient pharaohs of Africa to our modern day society, religion have had a profound effect on our existence as a society. For a good example of how religion affects politics in our modern world we need not look very far but in our own backyard. The influence of Catholicism on Latin American politics, and the role religion plays on Middle EasternRead More Religion and Politics Essay1761 Words   |  8 PagesReligion and Politics Both liberals and conservatives have become quite adept at mixing religion and politics in our current society. One also continues to observe an ongoing practice of civil religion demonstrated by presidents and office-seekers on both the left and right. Generally, the leftist merger ofRead MoreA Study of Religion in Politics3234 Words   |  13 PagesPolicy, Elections, and People A Study of Religion in Politics Introduction Religion has always played a large role in politics. Religion has played a role in the division of parties, political policy, and in influencing voters to vote for a particular candidate. It is presumed that religion has existed since the beginning of time and that it stills holds a prominent position in what occurs in today’s society. Religion, no matter what belief a person may have, often regulates what a person believes

Affirmative Action History Essay Example For Students

Affirmative Action History Essay Affirmative Action is defined by Websters New World College Dictionary as a policy or program for correcting the effects of discrimination in the employment or education of members of certain groups. The phrase affirmative action was coined by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 when he issued Executive Order 10925, initiating the Presidents Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued Executive Order 11246. This order required federal contractors to take affirmative action to increase the number of minorities that they employed. Thus affirmative action was born. However, when Kennedy and Johnson established affirmative action, they did not intend for it to have the perverted and distorted effect that it currently has today. Such perversions and distortions include the hiring of unqualified workers, the causing of problems for groups it originally set out to help, and reverse discrimination that results in unfair standards into higher education and the work force. The practice of affirmative action must be stopped. The main argument for affirmative action is that it creates equal opportunity for people in the work force and for students seeking admission into higher education. However, this is not a valid point. While affirmative action creates equal opportunity for some individuals, it discriminates against others, primarily white males. Therefore, affirmative action uses reverse discrimination to solve the problem of discrimination. Do two wrongs make a right? The answer is no. The first reason affirmative action should be stopped is that employees often are hired that are not qualified to execute their jobs effectively. Many times employers are forced to find the best minority, rather than the person most qualified for the job. For example, a policy was adopted by Duke University in 1993 that required each department at the university to hire at least one new African-American for a faculty position (Pasour). However, various surveys and estimates show that less than 4,000 blacks receive Ph. D.s in the United States. This is less than two black Ph.D. s for every American college or university (Sowell). Therefore, Duke Universitys policy would force them to hire faculty that are not as qualified, due to a shortage of black Ph.D.s, as their white counterparts. The hiring of unskilled workers is also detrimental to businesses as well. The primary purpose of a business is to make money for the employer, as well as the employees. The hiring of unqualified employees is harmful to the businesss production. When employees cannot perform their specific tasks, it often leads to error, which costs the company time and money. If the business is continually paying for worker error, its profits will decrease, producing a decrease in employee pay. Many times companies are forced to hire unqualified individuals because of quotas. Often when a businesss quota is not filled it is forced to conceive unnecessary jobs for minorities, which is also decreases a companys profit. Incapable employees are a detriment to worker unity as well. If an employee is not as qualified as his or her co-worker, it may create tension and frustration between them, in turn creating another complication.. The second reason it is imperative to abolish the practice of affirmative action is that it often initiates problems for the minorities it originally intended to help. This is apparent in the work place as well as in colleges and universities. The first problem affirmative action establishes for minorities is that it places a stigma on groups who benefit from affirmative action, especially those who actually earn their position because they are qualified for it. Consider an employer who hires a member of a minority group on the basis of merit alone. Many employees automatically assume that the individuals appointment resulted from affirmative action. Thus, any employee who does benefit from affirmative action bears the brand of not being the best pick, but only the best pick from a limited group (Pasour). .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .postImageUrl , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:hover , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:visited , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:active { border:0!important; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:active , .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1eb7fd0797a9739e2457fa7af4f8082f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Salem Witch Trials Essay The second problem it creates for minorities in the workplace is the loss of spirit and vitality for their jobs. If workers feel that the sole reason they are employed is to fill a quota, they may lack pride in their jobs, which in turn hinders their performance. In addition, minoritiess problems due to affirmative action are not exclusive to the work place. Many college and university minority students also experience the conundrums of affirmative action. At colleges in North Carolina, black students recently stated that they were treated like affirmative action cases even though they were not. Professors, seeking to help, asked them if they needed tutoring or other assistance, already assuming the black students lack of qualifications (Pasour). The third, and perhaps major, reason that affirmative action should be stopped is the issue of reverse discrimination. Affirmative action uses reverse discrimination to solve the problem of discrimination. Discrimination against whites, in particular males, is just as wrong as discrimination against minorities. As are many problems of affirmative action, reverse discrimination is present in both the workplace and in institutions of higher education. Reverse discrimination in the work place is a phenomenon associated with white males. White male job applicants who are qualified to receive a job are often discarded for under-qualified minorities because of quotas set forth by affirmative action. In the most extreme cases, white males have been fired to make room for minorities. For example, the Northern Natural Gas Company of Omaha, Nebraska, was forced by the government to release sixty-five white male workers to make room for minority employees in 1977 (Sowell). This act is extremely unfair to white males and is a pure form of discrimination. Many advocates of affirmative action argue that affirmative action is a form of retribution for past discrimination minorities experienced. However most minorities entering the job market today were born after the emergence of affirmative action, in 1964, and have suffered little prejudice in terms of salary. Reverse discrimination is not only a great injustice in the work place, but it is present in admissions to colleges and universities as well. However, it does not exclusively pertain to white males in this context, but Asian-Americans as well. Therefore, affirmative action is not even inclusive of all of the minorities, but rather a select few. Just as the white employee has to have higher credentials to receive a job, so do white and Asian-American college applicants. Colleges and universities often have quotas set by the government, as businesses do, that ensure that they have enough minorities in their incoming freshmen class. An example is the admission practices at the University of California at Berkeley. A 1995 report released by the university said that 9. 7 percent of all applicants were African-Americans. Of these 9.7 percent accepted, 0.8 percent of these African-American students were accepted on academic merit alone. The percentage of white students accepted by Berkeley totaled 36.8 percent. Of the 36.8 percent white students accepted, 47. 9 percent were accepted on academic merit alone (Affirmative Action). Thus the number of African-American students accepted because of non-academic circumstances was approximately sixty times greater than that of their white counterparts. Another interesting fact that was included in the study was the comparison of grade point averages and SAT scores. The average grade point average for a rejected white student was 3. 66 with an SAT score of 1142. The average grade point average for an accepted African-American student was 3.66 with an SAT score of 1030 (Affirmative Action). These statistics demonstrate the reverse discrimination against white college applicants due to affirmative action. In addition, many competent applicants are being refused admission, which is alarming due to the fact that only 27 percent of African-Americans graduate, whereas 66 percent of white or Asian-Americans graduate. Many people look forward to the day when employment and admission to colleges and universities will depend on an individuals qualifications and ability, regardless of the color of their skin or their gender. However, the United States has not reached that point yet. In order to reach this point we must devise an alternative to replace affirmative action, because as long as affirmative action is in effect there will always be racial tension. .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .postImageUrl , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:hover , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:visited , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:active { border:0!important; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:active , .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u90ad44de8d5d5f6c17e8726c897d022a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Michael Jackson Essay Such an alternative would be the strengthening of the ?intermediate institutions, such as community associations, schools, media, and independent social agencies, which provide the organizational foundation for collective development and effective public representation (Sterlitz). In essence, if the same amount of capital was extended to minority institutions, the minority society would eventually become more developed and give the much needed guidance to individuals, therefore enabling them to play a major part in society. Affirmative action was first introduced by President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson. In the time since Kennedy and Johnson, affirmative action has been severely distorted. Both presidents intended for this policy to stop discrimination, not simply reverse it. However, as shown in the foregoing discussion, the problems of affirmative action include hiring of unskilled employees, the establishment of problems for minorities it was originally suppose to help, and the basis for reverse discrimination.